# Items where Subject is "Fuzzy arithmetic"

- Library of Congress Subject Areas (1)
- Q Science (1)
- QA Mathematics (1)
**Fuzzy arithmetic**(101)

- QA Mathematics (1)

- Q Science (1)

**101**.

## A

*Housing area safety evaluation (HASE) based on fuzzy grey theory / Maisarah Abd Kadir, Maria Kamilah Mohamad@Mohd Othman and Nurizzati Zulkhaire.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with Vikor method for evaluation of student performance / Ahmad Hisyamuddin Abd Rahman.*
(2020)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Word sense disambiguation using fuzzy semantic-based string similarity model / Amir Abd-Rashid … [et al.].*
(2018)
Malaysian Journal of Computing (MJoC), 3 (2).
pp. 154-161.
ISSN 2600-8238

*A new structure design for ball and beam system using fuzzy PID controller with reference model / Nur Sakinah Abdul Aziz.*
(2021)
**Masters thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Hybrid fuzzy PID controller design for ball and beam system / Nur Sakinah Abdul Aziz … [et al.].*
(2019)
Journal of Electrical and Electronic Systems Research (JEESR), 15.
pp. 47-51.
ISSN 1985-5389

*The use of Fuzzy Analytical Network process in quality of life evaluation / Siti Nur Syakirah Abdul Halim and Ummu Syuaibah Abdul Rashid.*
(2019)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Application of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for contractor selection problem / Nur Syuhaila Abdul Rashid, Nur Amirah Mohd Amin and Nor Faradilah Mahad.*
(2020)
Gading Journal of Science and Technology, 3 (2).
pp. 109-117.
ISSN (e-ISSN) : 2637 - 0018

*Fuzz-C automatic dustbin / Siti Nabilah Abdullah.*
(2011)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Distance-based ranking of fuzzy numbers / Ahmad Syafadhli Abu Bakar.*
(2012)
**Masters thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Solving robot path planning problem using Ant Colony
Optimisation (ACO) approach / Nordin Abu Bakar and Rosnawati Abdul Kudus.*
(2009)
Scientific Research Journal, 6 (1).
pp. 65-76.
ISSN 1675-7009

*Development of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Magnetic Levitation system / Haslina Adnan.*
(2008)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*The best employee Of the year using pythagorean fuzzy numbers / Noraini Ahmad and Wan Nurul Anis Shaziela Wan Azilan.*
(2021)
Journal of Mathematics and Computing Science (JMCS), 7 (1).
pp. 35-43.
ISSN 0128-0767

*Recommendations of diet to pregnant woman with anaemia using analytical hierarchy process / Anis Suraya Ahmad and Fauzi Fatin Adzmi.*
(2019)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*A matrix approach for minimum spanning tree in neutrosophic and application in medical waste management / Nur Haifa Ahmad Hayazim, Siti Nurain Zulkifli and Siti Nurhidayah Yaacob.*
(2022)
[**Student Project**]
(Submitted)

*Predictive Model of Parameters Validation for the Vortexanda Technique by using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network / Norashikin Ahmad Kamal ...[et al.].*
(2017)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering (JMechE), SI 4 (1).
pp. 19-36.
ISSN 18235514

*Developing an android application for exercise routine based on fuzzy inference system / Norhamizah Aqilah Ahmad Ramlee, Nur Nadiyatul Husna Zainol Hisham and Nur Fadillah Rosli.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Application of fuzzy analytic network process in evaluating students' preference factors in online learning / Nurul Farhana Ahmad Rushdan and Nurul Amirah Mohd Khir Johari.*
(2022)
[**Student Project**]
(Submitted)

*Electricity load profile determination by using fuzzy C-means and probability neural network / Norhasnelly Anuar.*
(2015)
**Masters thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM).

*Selection of volleyball players using fuzzy PROMETHEE / Khairunnisa Anuar.*
(2020)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi Mara Perlis.

*Analytical comparison of fuzzy similarity methods / Nur Atika Arippin, Nurul Izzah Shapian and Nur Najihah Mohd Hanapiah.*
(2018)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Customer satisfaction evaluation of water quality using fuzzy conjoint and grey relational analysis method / Nur Hadirah Asmadi, Nur Azizah Mohd Arifin and Norfaradiana Mariani.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Intelligence classification and fuzzy optimisation model of people with epilepsy / Siti Rahmah Awang.*
(2012)
In:
The Doctoral Research Abstracts.
IPSis Biannual Publication, 2
(2).
Institute of Graduate Studies, UiTM, Shah Alam.

*Evaluating students assessment group project using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) / Nurul Suhada Aziz … [et al.].*
(2022)
Journal of Mathematics and Computing Science, 8 (2).
pp. 1-11.
ISSN 0128-0767

*A comparative study of students' perception on knowledge acquisition during diploma studies / Azfarhanna Azwan, Nur Aqilah Md Miswan and Aina Syuhada Kamal Azman.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

## C

*Parallel genetic algorithms for shortest path routing in high- performance computing / Mohd Erman Safawie Che Ibrahim.*
(2012)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA Terengganu.

*An aggregation of survey questionnaires in a fuzzy environment and its application / Dae Young Choi.*
(2019)
Malaysian Journal of Computing (MJoC), 4 (2): 5.
pp. 317-324.
ISSN 2600-8238

## D

*Consumer water usage profile based on fuzzy c-means clustering method / Noor Hidayah Daros, Nur Amira Dzulkernain and Nadhirah Adilah Ahmad Namiry.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

## F

*Some distance based similarity measure of Neutrosophic sets and the application to medical diagnosis / Nurul Najiha Fakhrarazi, Nurnisa Nasuha Mohd Yusof and Nik Nur Aisyah Nik Hassan.*
(2022)
[**Student Project**]
(Submitted)

## H

*Measuring customer's satisfaction on food premises cleanliness using fuzzy conjoint analysis / Ummilia Balqis Harun, Noor Afiqah Mustafa and Nur Azwanis Zahid.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Neuro-fuzzy data mining system for identifying e-commerce related threats / Saibu Aliyu Haruna, Akinyede Raphael Olufemi and Boyinbode Olutayo Kehinde.*
(2020)
Malaysian Journal of Computing (MJoC), 5 (2).
pp. 537-552.
ISSN 2600-8238

## I

*Sentiment mining in twitter for early depression detection / Najihah Salsabila Ishak.*
(2021)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu.

*A comparative study of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (IFAHP) with different sets of Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers (TIFNs) / Nur Syahera Ishak, Siti Nur Syazwani Zainudin and Nur Shazwani Laila.*
(2018)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Optimal parameter estimation of MISO system based on fuzzy numbers / Razidah Ismail ... [et al.].*
(2006)
Jurnal Teknologi Maklumat dan Sains Kuantitatif, 8 (1).
pp. 1-10.
ISSN 1823-0822

## J

*Dynamic intelligent tutoring system for blended learning using fuzzy rules / Siti Nazeha Jaafar.*
(2015)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Job Matching Mobile Application using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) / Mohammad Ashraf Jefrizin.*
(2017)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

## K

*An integrated fuzzy approach to solving multi-criteria decision making problems / Nor Hanimah Kamis.*
(2009)
**Masters thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Stage detection of Alzheimer Disease using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) / Fateen Nur Nadhira Kamal Ariffin.*
(2017)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu.

*The implementation of market basket analysis in menu association model for Corm Café / Nur Amalina Kamarulzaman.*
(2018)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Measuring students' perception on mathematics learning using fuzzy conjoint analysis / Zurina Kasim and Nur Liyana Muhamad Sukri.*
(2022)
Journal of Computing Research and Innovation (JCRINN), 7 (1): 7.
pp. 82-92.
ISSN 2600-8793

## M

*Comparison between fuzzy and non-fuzzy classification methods in the prediction of residential household water leakage / Nor Aishah Md Noh, Dr. Khairul Anwar Rasmani and Nur Rasyida Mohd Rashid.*
(2013)
[**Research Reports**]
(Unpublished)

*Comparison between artifical neural network and fuzzy time series to predict road accident / Nur Athirah Mohd Khalil.*
(2019)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi Mara Perlis.

*Nicotine replacement therapy decision based on modified intuitionistic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process / Norfazillah Matmali.*
(2018)
**Masters thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*An Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchical Process (IFAHP) approach in solving the marketing platform selection problem / Nor Faradilah Mahad.*
(2022)
Mathematics in Applied Research, 3: 7.
pp. 25-28.
ISSN 2811-4027

*The Application of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (IFAHP) in solving personnel selection problem / Nor Faradilah Mahad ... [et al.].*
(2022)
Mathematics in Applied Research, 3: 8.
pp. 29-32.
ISSN 2811-4027

*Sentiment analysis using clonal selection algorithm for Twitter’s data / Fatimah Mamat.*
(2012)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu.

*Car recognition using Bayes Classifier / Nur Atiqah Mat Samadi.*
(2017)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu.

*Analysis of the performance measures of a non-Markovian fuzzy queue via fuzzy Laplace transforms method / Baudouin Adia Leti Mawa ... [et al.].*
(2022)
Journal of Computing Research and Innovation (JCRINN), 7 (2): 29.
pp. 304-315.
ISSN 2600-8793

*Fuzzy cognitive maps and neutrosophic cognitive maps analysis of the emergence of COVID-19 post-vaccination / Nurul Eylia Maisarah Mazlan and Nur Amani Izzati Mohd Azhan.*
(2021)
[**Student Project**]
(Submitted)

*Selection of academic staff for excellent service award using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method / Siti Aisyah Moeis.*
(2021)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*A fuzzy multi criteria decision making model for students' selection process based on technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) / Daud Mohamad, Nor Hashimah Sulaiman and Fuziyah Ishak.*
(2006)
[**Research Reports**]
(Unpublished)

*Decision making using Neutrosophic And Analytics Hierarchical Process (N-AHP) in choosing the qualified candidate to enter the teacher training institutions / Muhammad Harith Mohamad & Muhamad Husaini Zainol.*
(2019)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Comparative analysis of DEA/AHP and DEA/Fuzzy AHP Models in Evaluating the Effeciency of Life Insurance and Takaful Companies / Nur Shuhada Mohamad, Nurul Fatinah Ahmad Padzil and Norhafizah Zakiah Hashim.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Spectrum aware clustering algorithm based on fuzzy logic for sensor based monitoring application / Noorhayati Mohamed Noor …[et al.].*
(2020)
Malaysian Journal of Computing (MJoC), 5 (1).
pp. 433-445.
ISSN 2600-8238

*Supplier selection for contractors using Fuzzy TOPSIS Algorithm / Mohamed Shafiq Mohamed Yusof.*
(2020)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu.

*The selection of internet service provider during pandemic COVID-19 using Fuzzv AHP and Neutrosophic MCDM approach / Muhammad Syahmi Azizi Mohammad Ghazali, Faizatul Aini Fauzan and Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan Mohd Zin.*
(2022)
[**Student Project**]
(Submitted)

*Analysing supplier selection criteria in fertigation system using fuzzy DEMATEL method / Ainun Hafizah Mohd ... [et al.].*
(2020)
Gading Journal for Science and Technology, 3 (1).
pp. 45-51.
ISSN 2637-0018

*Assessments of healthy lifestyle practices using fuzzy / Mohd Khairi Mohd Adnan.*
(2012)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu.

*The application of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to solve contractor selection problem / Nur Amirah Mohd Amin, Nurfasya Addina Sahari and Nur Syuhaila Abdul Rashid.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*The distances of hesitant fuzzy to solve MCDM problems by using VIKOR Method / Muhammad Faiz Zul Haziq Mohd Farish, Shazawani Shariff and Nurul Nadia Farhana Amran.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Ranking fuzzy numbers using area dominance method / Harliza Mohd Hanif.*
(2011)
**Masters thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Evaluate and rank the smartphone brand using fuzzy AHP and PROMETHEE / Diana Sirmayunie Mohd Nasir, Nurshahira Zawawi and Suzanawati Abu Hasan.*
(2019)
Jurnal Intelek, 14 (2).
pp. 44-51.
ISSN 2682-9223

*A comparative study between extent analysis method and geometric mean method in fuzzy analytic iderarchy process (FAHP): a case study of selection of best student in a secondary school / Muhamad Hafizudin Mohd Rodi, Mohamad Naqib Mohamad Fauzi and Fatin Norsyabilla Anuar.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Decision making in medical diagnosis by using single-valued neutrosophic sets / Nur Hasnani Mohd Rodzi, Nur Solehah Mohammad Zuki and Nor Siti Hajar Zukifli.*
(2022)
[**Student Project**]
(Submitted)

*Fuzzy-PID Position Control of a Three Fingered Robot Hand for Grasping Varying Loads / Norshariza Mohd Salleh ...[et al.].*
(2017)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering (JMechE), SI 4 (1).
pp. 61-77.
ISSN 18235514

*Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Computer Antivirus Software using Fuzzy AHP Approach / Siti Nur Athirah Mohd Zulkifly...[et al.].*
(2022)
Journal of Mathematics and Computing Science, 1 (8).
pp. 22-34.
ISSN 0128-0767

*Fuzzy time series and artificial neural network: forecasting exportation of natural rubber in Malaysia / Siti Nor Nadrah Muhamad …[et al.].*
(2021)
Journal of Computing Research and Innovation (JCRINN), 6 (1).
pp. 22-30.
ISSN 2600-8793

*Application of fuzzy TOPSIS in selecting the major factor influencing Malaysians’ choice of University (IPTA or IPTS) / Nur Syuhada Muhammat Pazil ... [et al.].*
(2018)
Journal of Computing Research and Innovation (JCRINN), 3 (2): 2.
pp. 10-16.
ISSN 2600-8793

*Multi criteria decision making for student scholarship selection using Neutrosophic Analytic Hierarchy Process (NAHP) method / Shafika Nurasyikin Senik and Nurul Syawanie Mzelan.*
(2019)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

## N

*The application of queuing theory model and fuzzy queuing theory model using DSW algorithm to optimize vehicle flow at ferry terminal / Noratiqah Nasokha, Nurhamizah Salim and Nursyahirah Abdul Karim.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*The selection of social networking sites using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process / Nor Nazuin Nazarail and Zurina Kasim.*
(2021)
ESTEEM Academic Journal, 17.
pp. 1-11.
ISSN 2289-4934

*Predicting Malaysian crude palm oil prices using intuitionistic fuzzy time series forecasting model / Nik Muhammad Farhan Hakim Nik Badrul Alam, Nazirah Ramli and Asyura Abd Nassir.*
(2022)
ESTEEM Academic Journal, 18: 6.
pp. 61-70.
ISSN 1675-7939

*A study on single server and multi server fuzzy queuing model and queuing theory model / Muhammad Alif Haikal Nor Azman, Nurul Latifah Ramli and Nurazimah Maharudin.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Assessing the effect of learning styles on students' performance using neuro fuzzy system / Nur Haziqah Adzreena Nor' Azman and Norasling Mohamad.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

## O

*Two phase fuzzy multicriteria model to evaluate teaching / Mahmod Othman, Ku Ruhana Ku Muhamud and Azuraliza Abu Bakar.*
(2006)
Jurnal Intelek, 4 (1).
pp. 83-94.
ISSN 2231-7716

## R

*The ranking of the preffered fast-food restaurant among CS248 students in UiTM Perlis using Fuzzy Topsis / Nurul Ain Nadhirah Roslan.*
(2019)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi Mara Perlis.

*The application of interval type 2 fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to solve personnel selection problems / Raja Nur Hafizah Raja Hang Tuah, Nurfaezah Mohd Husin and Mardiana Zaini.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Fuzzy TOPSIS based on α level set for academic staff selection / Nazirah Ramli and Nor Azizah M. Yacob.*
(2007)
Jurnal Gading UiTM Pahang, 11 (2).
pp. 57-70.
ISSN 0128-5599

*Forecasting students' enrolment in fuzzy time series based on three classes of t-norm of subsethood defuzzification / Nazirah Ramli and Abu Osman Md. Tap.*
(2009)
Gading Business and Management Journal, 13 (01).
pp. 1-14.
ISSN 0128-5599

*T-norm of yager class of subsethood defuzzification: improving enrolment forecast in fuzzy time series / Nazirah Ramli and Abu Osman Md. Tap.*
(2006)
Jurnal Gading UiTM Pahang, 10 (2).
pp. 1-11.
ISSN 0128-5599

*Students' evaluation on lecturers using fuzzy numbers / Nazirah Ramli and Daud Mohamad.*
(2008)
In: Proceedings STSS 2008, 3-4 June 2008, M.S. Garden Hotel, Kuantan Pahang.

*Students' evaluation on lecturers using fuzzy numbers / Nazirah Ramli and Daud Mohamad.*
(2008)
In: Proceedings STSS 2008 Broadening Horizons Through Research, 3 – 4 June 2008, M.S Garden Hotel Kuantan, Pahang.

*Analysing the effects of different options for fuzzy rule based to determine the general Anaesthesia dosage / Nurulizzah Ahmad Ramli @ Nazeli, Nurul Nadia Katni and Zulaikha Taharuddin.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Comparison between Market Basket Analysis and Partition Around Medoids clustering for knowledge discovering in consumer consumption pattern / Mohammad Adha Ruslan, Nurul Shahira Mohammad Ramly and Nor Hasliza Saberi.*
(2019)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

## S

*The application of queuing theory model and fuzzy queuing model at check-in counter in Airport / Aqilah Nadirah Saliman, Nur Atikah Abdullah and Nur Su Ain Abu Hussin.*
(2018)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Similarity based fuzzy inferior ratio for solving multicriteria decision making problems / Sharifah Aniza Sayed Ahmad, Daud Mohamad and Nurul Iffah Azman.*
(2020)
Malaysian Journal of Computing (MJoC), 5 (2).
pp. 597-608.
ISSN 2600-8238

*Segmentation of granulation in diabetic foot ulcer by using improved fuzzy c-means method / Syarafana Seri Buana, Nurul Nadiah Rosli and Anis Dayana Rusli.*
(2018)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Fuzzy time series for projecting school enrolment in Malaysia / Nor Hayati Shafii … [et al.].*
(2021)
Journal of Computing Research and Innovation (JCRINN), 6 (1).
pp. 11-21.
ISSN 2600-8793

*A study on postgraduate student evaluation on coursework and research by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process / Nur Najihah Shahrani.*
(2018)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Supplier selection based on two-phased fuzzy decision making / Fairuz Shohaimay...[et. al.].*
(2013)
Gading Journal for the Social Sciences, 17 (02).
pp. 55-71.
ISSN 2600-7568

*Forecasting the changes of crude oil price by using fuzzy inference system / Nur Fatehah Hanum Shuhaimi, Alia Sy Afiqah Badrul Hisham and Siti Sarah Azalan.*
(2018)
[**Student Project**]
(Unpublished)

*Comparison of AHP and fuzzy AHP for multi-criteria decision making / Zuhaibudin Sidek.*
(2019)
Journal of Mathematics and Computing Science (JMCS), 5 (1).
pp. 15-26.
ISSN 0128-0767

*Fuzzy AHP-SCOR approach for supplier evaluation and selection in medical facilities / Mohamad Khairul Eman Sofian & Muhammad Syahir Izzuddin Md Shokri.*
(2019)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Integration of fuzzy logic control algorithm in the development of optical fiber daylighting system for energy savings / Fuziah Sulaiman.*
(2006)
**PhD thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

*Evaluation of students’ perceptions of game-based mathematics classroom using fuzzy conjoint analysis / Azimah Suparlan …[et al.].*
(2019)
Gading Journal for Science and Technology, 2 (2).
pp. 54-63.
ISSN 2637-0018

*Selecting supplier for an optical shop by using Yuen’s fuzzy TOPSIS method / Sharifah Fatin Amirah Syed Fahmey Sham.*
(2020)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi Mara Perlis.

*Exploring the stress among students during online distance learning: an integration of statistical approach and fuzzy analysis/ Sharifah Fatimatuzzahra Syed Hasnol Hisham ... [et al.].*
(2022)
Mathematical Sciences and Informatics Journal (MIJ), 3 (2).
pp. 101-111.
ISSN 2735-0703

## W

*A fuzzy approach to portfolio selection at bursa Malaysia / Wan Rosanisah Wan Mohd.*
(2014)
**Masters thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

## Y

*Universiti Teknologi MARA application system using
modified neuro-fuzzy approach / Nor Eleena Yusoff.*
(2014)
**Masters thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam.

*Distance-based similarity measure for single-valued Neutrosophic sets and its application in medical diagnosis / Mohamad Amirul Fahmi Yusaffandy and Wan Abdullah Azim Wan Nor Azmi.*
(2022)
[**Student Project**]
(Submitted)

## Z

*Ranking the most preferred public transportation in Penang using : fuzzy analytic hierarchy processs FAHP / Nor Syafiqah Zainuddin.*
(2019)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi Mara Perlis.

*An evaluation of teaching performance by using fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) / Zamzabidah Zainol.*
(2017)
**Degree thesis, **thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.