Determinants and consequence of total spectator experience (TSE): empirical evidence from a sport tourism event of Formula One (F1) / Rezian-Na Muhammed Kassim

Muhammed Kassim, Rezian-Na (2012) Determinants and consequence of total spectator experience (TSE): empirical evidence from a sport tourism event of Formula One (F1) / Rezian-Na Muhammed Kassim. PhD thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM).


A recent wave of interest on the conceptualization and measurement of total spectators (customers) experience been vigorously conducted by the marketers and academic research to understand the factors that trigger their memorable experience and has influence on continue attending the special event. These waves have caused a recent surge in research that has explored many aspects of experiences' consumption. However, existing sport or tourism research has provided little explanation of the factors that portray the spectators' experience. The purpose of this study was to develop valid and reliable cues of Total Spectators' Experience (TSE) Scale and to examine the relationship among TSE, emotion, satisfaction and loyalty, This study applies Environmental Psychology Model (Mehrabian-Russell Mode, 1974) to a sample of 424 sport spectators from Sport Motor Mega Event. Based on the literature, a theoretical model was developed and tested using data collected from spectators attending a major motor sports event (Formula One). The research design of this study also applies the focus group, exploratory, descriptive, convenient sampling and cross-sectional method. The data was collected using survey questionnaire and data analyzes was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) via AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures) software package Version 18.0. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to validate the scales. All major goodness fit indices showed that the models acceptable. From eight (8) hypotheses only six (6) were accepted. Result of hypothesizes model acceptable fit was CMIN/DF=2.822, RMSEA=0.066, GFI = 0.914, AGFI = 0.901, IFI= 0.913 and CFI=0.912. The findings from this study point to support the M-R model in sport tourism setting. The results showed the overall TSE significantly contributes to spectator's emotion, satisfaction and loyalty. On the other hand, spectator's satisfaction had a negative effect on loyalty simultaneously. Discussions of the results are provided along with implication for the event organizers and government and recommendations for future research.


Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Email / ID Num.
Muhammed Kassim, Rezian-Na
Email / ID Num.
Thesis advisor
Musa, Rosidah
Thesis advisor
Mohd Roslin, Rosmimah
Thesis advisor
Kwame, Ampofo Boeting
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General) > Travel. Voyages and travels (General) > Sports and tourism. Sports tourism
H Social Sciences > HF Commerce > Consumer satisfaction
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam > Faculty of Business and Management
Programme: Doctor of Business Administration
Keywords: Spectators, experience, total spectators' experience, emotion
Date: 2012
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