Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in organic and commercially cabbage (Brassica Oleracea) at Cameron Highlands / Nur Ain Nurry

Nurry, Nur Ain (2011) Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in organic and commercially cabbage (Brassica Oleracea) at Cameron Highlands / Nur Ain Nurry. [Student Project] (Unpublished)


Introduction: Dietary exposure to heavy metals, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) has been identified as a risk to human health through the consumption of vegetable crops. This study was to determine the level of heavy metals in organic and commercial cabbage (Brassica Oleracea) which involved three species of cabbage that is green cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli at Cameron Highlands.
Methodology: The study was conducted in Cameron Highlands, Pahang. The study location was in six vegetables farm at organic and commercial farm of vegetable plantation around Cameron Highlands. The study design of this study is cross-sectional study. Sampling technique involved sampled of three species of cabbage from both organic and commercial farm. The sample will be analyzed for their concentrations of zinc, cadmium and lead using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Data of the people consume the vegetable as their meal was collected by using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and oral interview. A statistical analysis that is statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 17.0 was used in this study.
Results: The result show that levels ranged from 17 to 19.88 mg/kg for zinc, 0.425 to 0.725 for cadmium and 1'.675 to 6.375 mg/kg for lead concentration. The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb varied between each species of cabbage and from the technique of plantation which is organic and commercial technique. There was no significant different (p>0.05) between heavy metal concentration with the three species of cabbage. There was a significant different (p<0.05) in the level of heavy metal concentration between organic and commercial farm's vegetables. And there were no significant different (p>0.05) between heavy metal concentration in organic and commercial green cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. The level of lead concentration for each samples were exceeding the maximum permissible limit as stated in Food Regulation, 1985 except organic green cabbage. Cadmium and Zinc concentration were found to be below the maximum permissible limit for vegetable product.
Conclusion: In conclusion, from health risk assessment done, all those vegetables were safe to consume since the tolerable daily intake of each individual were below the standard set by FAO/WHO for lead.


Item Type: Student Project
Email / ID Num.
Nurry, Nur Ain
Email / ID Num.
Ishak, Ahmad Razali
Subjects: Q Science > QK Botany > Plant physiology > Physical plant physiology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
T Technology > TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy > Metallurgy
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor > Puncak Alam Campus > Faculty of Health Sciences
Programme: Bachelor of Environmental Health and Safety
Keywords: Heavy metals, cabbage (Bressice Oleracea), permissible limit, tolerable daily intake
Date: May 2011
URI: https://ir.uitm.edu.my/id/eprint/60938
Edit Item
Edit Item


[thumbnail of 60938.PDF] Text

Download (1MB)

Digital Copy

Digital (fulltext) is available at:

Physical Copy

Physical status and holdings:
Item Status:

ID Number




Statistic details