Chemical characterization of animal bone based ceramic and chemometric method / Nur Aidelia Rosli

Rosli, Nur Aidelia (2021) Chemical characterization of animal bone based ceramic and chemometric method / Nur Aidelia Rosli. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.


Chemical characterization is a process of defining chemical properties in a substance.
In this study, chemical characterization focuses on animal bone ashes and animal bone
based ceramic samples. Ceramic products derived from the bones of non-halal animal
have become a growing concern for Muslims in terms of its uncertainty status. This
research quantifies concentration of eight elements in animal bones ashes, animal
bone based ceramics with different percentages of bone ashes and control (a ceramic
body without bone ashes). Profiles of the multi-elemental concentrations from cow,
goat, swine bone ashes and ceramic samples were created by characterizing using
Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, Flame Atomic
Absorption Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Scanning Electron
Microscope (SEM). Characterization was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma
-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (Shimadzu ICPE 9800) for Ag, Al, K, Na, Si, P and
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS Agilent, 240) for Ca and Mg
elements. Spectral data was performed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and
surface morphology performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The data of
animal bone ashes concentration depicted phosphate concentrations in swine bone
ashes as the highest mineral followed by cow and goat bone ashes. The chemometric
analysis employed to classify animal bone ashes using Principal Component Analysis
(PCA) presented close correlations of bone ashes treated at 800 ◦C and 1000 ◦C with
phosphate. Animal bone-based ceramic samples characterized by the spectroscopy
method found that concentrations of phosphate in the ceramics made from swine bone
ashes were higher than ceramic samples from cow and goat bone ashes. PCA
categorized and discriminated animal bone based ceramic samples of different animal
bone ashes. Clustering was determined by Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering
(AHC) analysis by clustering together ceramic samples with bone ashes in higher
percentages while ceramic samples with lower percentages of bone ashes composition
clustered together as depicted through the distinctive hierarchical pattern on a
dendogram. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) successfully class the ceramic
samples based on types of animals bone ashes and discriminated from the blank
samples. Spectral data of bone ashes and the animal bone based ceramics samples
using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) methods shown spectral data of ceramics
samples mainly represent by tricalcium phosphate, silica glass, and anorthite. The
intensity of peaks at 1046.91cm-1 were due to the fundamental stretching and bending
vibrations of the PO3−
4 , phosphate functional groups in animal bone ashes. Scanning
Electron Microscope (SEM) examined surface morphology of animal bone based
ceramic showed an identical pattern of the samples. The results encourage continuing
the research but with more emphasis on the phosphate as the main indicator to classify
samples of animal bone-based ceramics and further experimenting with the preprocessing
of instrumental and spectroscopic data.


Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Email / ID Num.
Rosli, Nur Aidelia
Email / ID Num.
Thesis advisor
Mohamadin, Mohammad Isa (Associate Professor Dr.)
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology > Clay industries. Ceramics. Glass > Ceramic technology. Pottery
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam > Faculty of Applied Sciences
Programme: Master of Science (Chemistry)
Keywords: Ceramic; chemometric studies
Date: July 2021
Edit Item
Edit Item


[thumbnail of 60521.pdf] Text

Download (821kB)

Digital Copy

Digital (fulltext) is available at:

Physical Copy

Physical status and holdings:
Item Status:

ID Number




Statistic details