The impact of flexible working arrangements on mental health, well-being and productivity of millennials in Malaysia / Nur Zafira Akma Rozlan

Rozlan, Nur Zafira Akma (2021) The impact of flexible working arrangements on mental health, well-being and productivity of millennials in Malaysia / Nur Zafira Akma Rozlan. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.


is expected to increase tremendously in the coming years. However, millennials in
Malaysia are struggling with reduced well-being and mental health issues like anxiety
and depression, which eventually mount to the heavy cost of lost productivity and
may burden the national economy in the long run. In the context of work, majority of
the millennials are encumbered with rigid working arrangements and low job control
at the workplace, which contribute towards poor mental health, reduced well-being
and low productivity. The implementation of flexible working arrangements (FWAs)
provides a degree of control to the employees to decide their working arrangements in
terms of time, place and method of working, hence increasing the autonomy of the
employees. The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of flexible
working arrangements (FWAs) on millennials mental health, well-being and
productivity. A quantitative approach was conducted using a self-administered
questionnaire that was distributed via Google Form to Malaysian employees, who
were born in between 1981 and 1996 (25 to 40 years old in 2021), and work in the
services sector. A usable sample of 394 was analysed using the Partial Least Square-
Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) technique and Statistical Package for
Social Science (SPSS). Based on the research questions, three core findings have been
derived as follows: 1) gender, marital status and caring duties have an effect on
mental health of millennials in Malaysia; 2) FWAs positively influence mental health,
well-being and productivity of millennials in Malaysia; 3) autonomy mediates the
relationship between FWAs, mental health, well-being and productivity. This study
has contributed towards the enrichment of Self-Determination Theory at the
Workplace. Since the implementation of FWAs in Malaysia is a matter of ‘when’
rather than ‘if’ , this study will be able to guide the organizations and government in
developing the FWAs policy, especially in the age of post COVID-19, where
flexibility is considered a necessity rather than a luxury.


Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Email / ID Num.
Rozlan, Nur Zafira Akma
Email / ID Num.
Thesis advisor
Subramaniam, Geetha (Professor Dr.)
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > Management. Industrial Management > Time management. Scheduling
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine > Mental health. Mental illness prevention
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam > Faculty of Business and Management
Programme: Master of Science (Business and Management)
Keywords: Flexible Working Arrangements (FWAs); millennials; mental health; well-being; productivity; autonomy
Date: July 2021
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