The association of backpack load and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in Primary School Children at Bandar Puncak Alam / Saidy Hasiffy Abd Hamid

Abd Hamid, Saidy Hasiffy (2015) The association of backpack load and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in Primary School Children at Bandar Puncak Alam / Saidy Hasiffy Abd Hamid. [Student Project] (Unpublished)


The backpack has become a popular method for school children to carry books and stationaries to and from school. However, some literature review reported it may contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in children. To date, there are still no consensus between researcher regarding the load limit and the placement of the backpack on the back. The objectives of the study is to measure the relative backpack weight (RBW) carried by students, to determine the prevalence of MSDs among them, and to assess the association ofMSDs with standard, gender, body mass index (BMI) and RBW. Standard four and five from three schools in Bandar Puncak Alam are given consent letter for permission to participate. Only 74 students agree and have been arranged through phone calls for assessment. Demographic, anthropometric data is assessed by interview and measurement whereas the MSDs is assessed through guided interview using Standardized . Nordic Questionnaires. It has been found out that average load carried by primary school students are 4.lkg ± 0.9kg with RBW of 11.1 % ± 3.0% which is within the recommendation of RBW between 10% - 15% backpack load. Standard four bring heavier RBW than standard five (p = 0.026) but no significant load differences shown for RBW with gender. Prevalence of MSDs shows higher problems reported by students at neck and upper back of the body (n=31; 41.9%) and the lowest are the knee (n=l; 14%). There is no significant found between the overall MSDs to gender, but significantly different compared to upper back MSDs where male complaints higher than female students (p = 0.048). Significant difference shown in association between BMI and overall MSDs (p = 0.038), and it includes the upper (p = 0.040) and lower back (p = 0.021) where underweights complaint more than normal ones. Different RBW range carried also shows MSDs effect to shoulder (p = o\)03), elbow (p = 0.004), wrist (p = 0.042), upper back (p = 0.024) and lower back (p = 0.021) but no significant gain from RBW measured to overall MSDs. The study shows significance to different criteria and the backpack load is a potential threat to school children. Parents and school teachers apart from school children should collectively conscious about the school children backpack and consult the healthy backpack way to them.


Item Type: Student Project
Email / ID Num.
Abd Hamid, Saidy Hasiffy
Email / ID Num.
Thesis advisor
Abdullah, Abdul Mujid
Subjects: L Education > LB Theory and practice of education > Primary Education
R Medicine > RC Internal Medicine > Diseases of the musculoskeletal system
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor > Puncak Alam Campus > Faculty of Health Sciences
Programme: Bachelor of Environmental Health and Safety
Keywords: Primary school children, Backpack, Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs), Relative Backpack Weight (RBW), Body Mass Index (BMI)
Date: July 2015
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