Biodiesel from renewable based materials: methods of processing / Nur Amyra Syafiqah Norhisham

Norhisham, Nur Amyra Syafiqah and Abdull Halim, Ainin Sofiya and Zulkifli, Nor Fatin Fatihah and Rasidi, Ahmad Ziad (2021) Biodiesel from renewable based materials: methods of processing / Nur Amyra Syafiqah Norhisham. [Student Project] (Unpublished)


The realization of energy and environmental concerns associated with the burning of fossil fuels has driven many researchers to explore the possibility of using alternative and renewable sources of energy. Among them, biodiesel which is one of the types of biofuel has received a lot of attention. Biodiesel is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids that are derived from various generations, dependent on the type of feedstock used. In particular, the first-generation biofuels are produced from edible plant oils like soybeans, corn, sugarcane, palm oil and rapeseed. Meantime, second-generation biofuels are processed from lignocellulosic biomass from natural plants, agricultural waste and energy crops such as Jatropha, Miscanthus, switchgrass and willow. Plus, third-generation biofuels are developed by using micro-and-macroalgae in line with the development of research. The term biofuel refers to a primarily biomass-derived liquid, gas and solid fuels. The demand for the use of renewable and sustainable energy to replace fossil fuels is growing. The main reason is that burning of fossil fuel that is used in transportation such as gasoline, liquified petroleum gas, diesel fuel and natural gas contributes to the increase in the carbon dioxide (CO2) or greenhouse gas (GHG) level in the atmosphere. Therefore, it leads to global warming that becomes more concerning at this day and age. Also, increasing energy demand will pose challenges to the security of supply as resources are scattered around the globe. However, advances in technology have significantly improved the quality of life of the human population. In an attempt to meet these demands, researchers are exploring different approaches to delivering affordable clean energy from the abundant biomass in our environment. Therefore, a review on the production of biodiesel from soybean, sugarcane, palm oil and microalgae are presented. The objective of this work is to review and compare the most effective method of processing biodiesel using soybean, sugarcane, palm oil and microalgae, along with presenting the various parameters for its continued application as a viable manufacturing method. Biodiesel can be processed by three methodologies that are pyrolysis or thermal cracking, micro-emulsification and transesterification. Collectively, the most effective method for producing biodiesel is via the transesterification process and is discussed in-depth. The results mainly discussed comparative findings of its parameters and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from respective feedstocks. In short, the approach to sustainability and reducing fossil fuel consumption remains a healthy and economically viable one and the future of biodiesel may not be focused solely on one generation but, can be a mixture of several generations in line to meet global demand.


Item Type: Student Project
Email / ID Num.
Norhisham, Nur Amyra Syafiqah
Abdull Halim, Ainin Sofiya
Zulkifli, Nor Fatin Fatihah
Rasidi, Ahmad Ziad
Email / ID Num.
Thesis advisor
Mustaffa, Ahmad Rozaimee
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology > Chemical engineering
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > Biotechnology
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > Biotechnology > Processes, operations, and techniques
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > Biotechnology > Processes, operations, and techniques > Extraction
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > Fuel
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > Fuel > Biodiesel fuels
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu > Dungun Campus > Faculty of Chemical Engineering
Programme: Diploma in Chemical Engineering
Keywords: Biodiesel ; biofuel ; biomass ; microalgae ; palm oil ; soybean ; sugarcane ; transesterification ; Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME)
Date: 2021
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