The monuments of the ‘old-order’ era in Jakarta: visual representation of Sukarno’s nationalism / Toto Sugiarto Arifin

Arifin, Toto Sugiarto (2016) The monuments of the ‘old-order’ era in Jakarta: visual representation of Sukarno’s nationalism / Toto Sugiarto Arifin. International Journal of INTI, 21 (1): 5. pp. 54-67. ISSN 0126-5822


The construction of monuments in the ‘Old-Order’ (Orde Lama) era in Jakarta is an integral part of the Indonesian’s struggle. This study is a qualitative study with qualitative descriptive analysis through textual and contextual analysis focused on the spirit and the visual representation of the five monuments which were built during the reign of the Old-Order in Jakarta. These monuments are Monumen Selamat Datang, Pembebasan Irian Barat, Dirgantara, and Monumen Nasional (Monas). Monuments built in the Old-Order era in Jakarta, served as the representation of Nationalism from the first President of The Republic of Indonesia, Ir. Soekarno or better known to the Indonesian people as ‘Bung Karno’ that are reflected in the construction of monuments in his reign. These monuments are not portrayed as character, class, or certain ideology, but more as the representation of the life spirit from the Indonesian people and the values of their culture, depicted by Monumen Nasional as the center point of the four other monuments. Bung Karno is a consistent leader with strong character and has ability to integrate varieties of ethnic, class, religion, and ideology into one nationality. All of these are reflected in his ideas to build the five monuments, so that Bung Karno’s figure can be seen as a role model for leadership in Indonesia.


Item Type: Article
Email / ID Num.
Arifin, Toto Sugiarto
Subjects: N Fine Arts > N Visual arts (General) > Cultural property. Art and war. Protection of monuments and art works during wartime. Lost works of art
N Fine Arts > NA Architecture > Architecture and state
N Fine Arts > NA Architecture > Architectural decoration
N Fine Arts > NK Decorative arts > Decoration and ornament. Design
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam > Faculty of Art and Design
Journal or Publication Title: International Journal of INTI
UiTM Journal Collections: Others > Jurnal INTI
ISSN: 0126-5822
Volume: 21
Number: 1
Page Range: pp. 54-67
Keywords: Nationalism, monuments, spirit, visual representation
Date: 2016
Edit Item
Edit Item


[thumbnail of 53434.pdf] Text

Download (287kB)

ID Number




Statistic details