Characterization of cassava stem and its potential as laminated product / Norhayati Hamzah

Hamzah, Norhayati (2020) Characterization of cassava stem and its potential as laminated product / Norhayati Hamzah. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.


The lack of wood supply and higher demand for wood product has encouraged the
researchers to find alternative materials for wood composite industry. Cassava (Manihot

esculenta) stem from agricultural waste is a potential alternative to become a value-
added product. The cassava stem was regarded as waste and burned when its tuber is

being harvested. It was great idea to use cassava stem as laminated product. This
research is aim to investigate the fundamental characteristics of cassava stem at
different sections along the height and evaluate its relations on adhesive bonding
performance due to lack of information for composite production. The fundamental
characteristics (microscopic and macroscopic characteristics, chemical, mechanical)
and surface properties (pH, buffer capacity, wettability and surface roughness) were
investigated and analysed. In adhesive bonding performance as laminated product, the
shear and delamination test were conducted. SEM observation shows that the bottom
and middle sections had higher amounts of starch. The bottom section is more
preferable for laminated products due to its macroscopic characteristics. Holocellulose
content mostly showed no significant differences in terms of difference sections.
Meanwhile, the average results of mechanical properties which were flexural modulus
of elasticity (MOE), flexural modulus of rupture (MOR), for compression of parallel
and perpendicular to the grain were 5.01 N/mm2

, 359 N/mm2

, 23.28Mpa and 2.0

, respectively. The average value of pH, alkaline and acidic buffer capacity were
pH 5.59, 0.89 m.e and 3.17 m.e. While, for contact angle of cassava stem using distilled
water and MUF adhesive were 53.59° and 82.3°. Shear and delamination tests were
also found in an increasing pattern from the bottom to the top sections. The average
value for shear strength were 6.1Mpa, 5.24 Mpa and 3.67Mpa respectively. Meanwhile,
the delamination rate were 7.35%, 6.29% and 5.55% respectively. It has passed JAS
standard. Furthermore, the results revealed that there were no significant differences for
delamination in all sections. It is hoped that the findings from this study can contribute
to the new body of knowledge and value- added to agriculture wasted residue.


Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Email / ID Num.
Hamzah, Norhayati
Email / ID Num.
Thesis advisor
Nordin, Kamarulzaman (Assoc. Prof.)
Subjects: Q Science > QK Botany
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam > Faculty of Applied Sciences
Programme: Master of Science (Wood Science and Technology)
Keywords: Cassava; manihot esculenta; adhesive; laminated products
Date: October 2020
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