The concept of human capital: the core system in lifelong learning (LLL) among repeated offenders for drug abuse in Kelantan / Zanirah Mustafa@Busu … [et al.]

Mustafa@Busu, Zanirah and Nik Din, Nik Muniyati and Ismail, Mohd Khairul Anwar and Mat Zin, Mohd Nazri and Che Mat, Che Bakar and Mohd Firdaus Kozako, Intan Nurul ‘Ain (2021) The concept of human capital: the core system in lifelong learning (LLL) among repeated offenders for drug abuse in Kelantan / Zanirah Mustafa@Busu … [et al.]. Journal of Contemporary Islamic Studies (JCIS), 7 (1). pp. 27-40. ISSN 0128-0902 (e-ISSN )


[thumbnail of 47130.pdf] Text

Download (1MB)


Drugs have become a big threat to the country. For the development of our country, the increase in the number of inmates in prisons in Malaysia is something to be concerned about. It affects the development of the economy, education, and health. Apart from the increasing number of prisoners in jail, an increase in recidivism cases among prisoners in Malaysia is also alarming. This indicates that prisoners are undaunted when committing the crimes and lack of spirituality to help them to face the challenges after being released from prison. The aim of this study is to examine and identify the concept of human capital that is suitable for the formation of the Life long Learning Model in terms of spiritual guidance to ex-offenders for drug abuse. Furthermore, the study also aims to test and analyze the extent to which the level of understanding of Islam among the drug offenders in Malaysia and generate a Lifelong Learning Model based on the concept of human capital in terms of spiritual guidance. The study adopts qualitative methods by using a descriptive study which is based on the existing scenarios. The data is collected from library sources including research on relevant documents, and observation. Therefore, this study also utilize da survey that aimed at studying the implementation of a lifelong learning model through the development of a human capital conceptual frame work for ex-offender of drug abuse. Thus, a study is needed to develop and produce a new model which is a lifelong learning model based on the human capital concept that focuses on spiritual development and guidance specifically for ex-offenders of drug abuse to address the increasing frequency of repeated offenses in Malaysia. This study provides a significant impact on the prisoners themselves, their families, communities, and the country.


Item Type: Article
Mustafa@Busu, Zanirah
Nik Din, Nik Muniyati
Ismail, Mohd Khairul Anwar
Mat Zin, Mohd Nazri
Che Mat, Che Bakar
Mohd Firdaus Kozako, Intan Nurul ‘Ain
Subjects: L Education > LC Special aspects of education > Education of special classes of persons
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kelantan > Machang Campus > Academy of Contemporary Islamic Studies (ACIS)
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Contemporary Islamic Studies (JCIS)
UiTM Journal Collections: UiTM Journal > Journal of Contempory Islamic Studies (JCIS)
ISSN: 0128-0902 (e-ISSN )
Volume: 7
Number: 1
Page Range: pp. 27-40
Official URL:
Item ID: 47130
Uncontrolled Keywords: concept of human capital, lifelong learning, offender

ID Number



View in Google Scholar

Edit Item
Edit Item