Study on fish scales and its systematic approach on colouring process / Rusmawati Ghazali

Ghazali, Rusmawati (2007) Study on fish scales and its systematic approach on colouring process / Rusmawati Ghazali. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.


This research has been initiated to assist the fish scales entrepreneur in Malaysia
into getting a consistent fish scales dye process. Several tests on colouring dyes
have been conducted to establish a suitable dye with consistent measuring
With the above objectives in mind, the researcher hoped to establish a colour
guideline in form of colour tones thus provides a wider choice of colour selection
to these entrepreneurs.
John Snapper or Golden Snapper " Jenahak" from (Lutjanus johni family),
Malabar Red Snapper "Merah" from (Lutjanus malabaricus family), Threadfish
Bream" Kerisi" from (Nemipteridae family) and Herring or Toli Shad" Terubok"
from (Clupeidae family) were the four types of salt water fish selected for their
scales for this research as they are the most caught by Malaysian fishermen.
In the early stage of this experiment the researcher tried to find a suitable cleaning
substance and process to wash these fish scales. Three types of cleaning agent
were then tested such as detergent, lime juice and bleach. Ofthe three, lime juice
produced the best result.
Some other experiments conducted were the crushing test, burning test, pounding
test and baking test. They are to determine the durability quality of these fish
The fish scales were then tested for colouring suitability. Five different types of
fabric dyes were selected such as disperse dye, reactive dye, vat dye, pigment dye
and natural dye. Out of these five types, Cool Reactive dye from Remazol brand
gave the best colour reaction on these scales. The weighing technique was then
established using grams for colours and litre for measuring water. Prior to this the
researcher had used a spoon for measuring the colour quantity and cups for
measuring the amount of water where it produced an inconsistent colour
tones.Based on the colour tones obtained from the experiments, the researcher
were able to establish an array ofcolours in the form of colour codes.
A colour fastness test were conducted on these coloured scales using test methods
such as rubbing test, daylight test and soaking in sulphuric acid.
Apart from the above discoveries, the researcher was also able to find other
valuable information to be shared with. They include the size, shape, thickness
and texture of the scales which were different for all the four types of fish. The
resilient characteristic of the scales made it difficult to tear or crushed. However,
the colour absorption on these fish scales is being influenced by its thickness.
As for the recommendation, this research can be used as reference for producing
wider range of handicraft products and products in form ofjewelleries or sequins.
The colours can further be experimented using natural dye on other types of salt
water or fresh water fish. Batik decoration techniques can be applied on a bigger
size fish scales.


Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Email / ID Num.
Ghazali, Rusmawati
Subjects: N Fine Arts > NC Drawing. Design. IIlustration
N Fine Arts > NC Drawing. Design. IIlustration > Technique > Special subjects (Technique, history and collections) > Animal and wildlife anatomy and drawing
Divisions: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam > Faculty of Art and Design
Keywords: Fish scales, entrepreneur, colouring dyes, colour selection, dye
Date: 2007
Edit Item
Edit Item


[thumbnail of TM_RUSMAWATI GHAZALI_07_5 1.pdf] Text

Download (902kB)

Digital Copy

Digital (fulltext) is available at:

Physical Copy

Physical status and holdings:
Item Status:

ID Number




Statistic details